1273), Christian Wisdom Explained Philosophically." The article then expounds on these reasons in detail. Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, short introductory videos ("Aquinas 101"), The Classics of Western Philosophy: A Reader's Guide, The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, The Summa Theologiæ of St. Thomas Aquinas, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Summa_Theologica&oldid=995631084, Articles lacking reliable references from March 2012, Articles that link to foreign-language Wikisources, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the Schaff-Herzog with a title parameter, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the Schaff-Herzog, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Fathers of the English Dominican Province. Grace is a "transmutation of the human soul" that takes place "instantaneously." 1964–80. The Unio between the Logos and the human nature is a "relation" between the divine and the human nature, which comes about by both natures being brought together in the one person of the Logos. By choosing such a lower good as its end, the will is misled by self-love, so that this works as cause in every sin. Summa Theologiae (excerpts) Part I, Question 2, Article 2: ... it is necessary to accept as a middle term the meaning of the word, and not its essence, for the question of its essence follows on the question of its existence. attributes, but persists throughout Thomas’ doctrine of God in the Summa Theologiae. Summa Theologica (originally Summa Theologiae) is the principal work of Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), an Italian friar, philosopher, and theologian and one of the central figures in medieval Christian thought.Aquinas wrote the Summa between 1265 and 1273, intending it to serve as a summation of all known theological learning for seminarians. ", Objection 2: "Christ conformed His manner of life to those among whom He lived, in the matter of food and raiment. Since no man on his own can truly live the perfect ethical life (and therefore reach God), it was necessary that a perfect man bridge the gap between God and man. In a chain of acts of will, man strives for the highest end. Since, however, the will also moves the other powers of man, sin has its seat in these too. (noun) The doctrine of the sacraments follows the Christology; the sacraments "have efficacy from the incarnate Word himself". The soul's power of knowing has two sides: a passive (the intellectus possibilis) and an active (the intellectus agens). Lesson 74: The Meaning of the Incarnation. Blackfriars edition (61 vols., Latin and English with notes and introductions, London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, and New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company), paperback edition 2006 (, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 02:02. The one side of the work of redemption consists herein, that Christ as head of humanity imparts ordo, perfectio, and virtus to his members. The five ways, however, occupy only one of the Summa's 3,125 articles. Definition. This union with the human soul is the gratia unionis, which leads to the impartation of the gratia habitualis from the Logos to the human nature. Throughout the Summa, Aquinas cites Christian, Muslim, Hebrew, and Pagan sources, including, but not limited to: Christian Sacred Scripture, Aristotle, Augustine of Hippo, Avicenna, Averroes, Al-Ghazali, Boethius, John of Damascus, Paul the Apostle, Pseudo-Dionysius, Maimonides, Anselm of Canterbury, Plato, Cicero, and John Scotus Eriugena. Semi-pelagian tendencies are far removed from St. Thomas. The Dictionary.com Word Of The Year For 2020 Is â¦. Summa Theologica, by St. Thomas Aquinas, , full text etext at sacred-texts.com In this connection the thoughts of the unity, infinity, unchangeability, and goodness of the highest being are deduced. Describe 2020 In Just One Word? Since sin is contrary to the divine order, it is guilt and subject to punishment. Besides the perfections given by the vision of God, which Jesus enjoyed from the beginning, he receives all others by the gratia habitualis. The structure of the work reflects this cyclic arrangement. The conceptions of faith and love are of much significance in the complete system of St. Thomas. Aquinas's commentaries on St. Paul are well known and have received significant attention in the past few years. Of St. Thomas's eschatology, according to the commentary on the Sentences, this is only a brief account. âMonolithâ vs. âMegalithâ: Whatâs The Difference? Master these essential literary terms and youâll be talking like your English teacher in no time. 1871–82. Nothing in the world is accidental or free, although it may appear so in reference to the proximate cause. (ˈsʊmɑː ˌθɪəˈlɒdʒɪkɑː) noun. Additionally, questions on a broader theme are grouped into Treatises, though the category of treatise is reported differently, depending on the source. "; and (3) "Whether God exists?" Pronunciation of summa theologiae with 3 audio pronunciations, 3 translations and more for summa theologiae. 61–67), The gifts, beatitudes and blessings of the Holy Ghost (qq. Therefore, three persons are to be affirmed in God. This separation between law and acts of force also allows men to depose tyrants, or those who flout the natural law; while removing an agent of the law is contrary to the common good and the eternal law of God, which orders the powers that be, removing a tyrant is lawful as he has ceded his claim to being a lawful authority by acting contrary to law. The second part of the Summa deals with man's purpose (the meaning of life), which is happiness. He worked on it from the time of Clement IV (after 1265) until the end of his life. 93–97), The old law; ceremonial and judicial precepts (qq. This holds both of the knowledge and the will of Christ. "The physicist proves the Earth to be round by one means, the astronomer by another: for the latter proves this by means of mathematics, e. g. by the shapes of eclipses, or something of the sort; while the former proves it by means of physics, e. g. by the movement of heavy bodies towards the center.". Then in his edition of the opening of the summa (“Summa Theologiae, Questions on God”), the very first footnote for question 1 identifies sacra doctrina with “Christian theology”! During Thomas’ fairly short life — he lived approximately fifty years, from 1224/6–1274 — Thomas composed an extremely large and diverse number of works. 106–108), Treatise on the states of life (qq. 1485, written from 1265–1274; also known as the Summa Theologica or the Summa), as the best-known work of Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274), is a compendium of all of the main theological teachings of the Catholic Church, intended to be an instructional guide for theology students, including seminarians and the literate laity. (reissue, 3 vols.) DICTIONARY.COM Aquinas conceives of merit in the Augustinian sense: God gives the reward for that toward which he himself gives the power. The "first cause" alone is able to reclaim him to the "final end." The arguments from authority, or sed contra arguments, are almost entirely based on citations from these authors. Seeberg, ut sup., ii. In order to trace the role of simplicity, one must understand what this doctrine entails. It is inevitable that they bring spiritual gifts in sensuous form, because of the sensuous nature of man. The Summa Theologica, as its title indicates, is a theological summary. Yet this is not an easy task, for the meaning of simplicity in Thomas is fervently debated. The person of the Logos, accordingly, has assumed the impersonal human nature, and in such way that the assumption of the soul became the means for the assumption of the body. Opera Omnia, Parma: Fiaccadori. As Christ, exalted, still influences men, so does he still work on their behalf continually in heaven through the intercession (interpellatio). The res sensibiles are the matter, the words of institution the form of the sacraments. St. Thomas Aquinas The Summa Theologica (Benziger Bros. edition, 1947) Translated by Fathers of the English Dominican Province The consequence of this loss is the disorder and maiming of man's nature, which shows itself in "ignorance; malice, moral weakness, and especially in concupiscentia, which is the material principle of original sin." Collins English Dictionary. A protagonist is the main character of a story, or the lead. With this thought, the strict logical deduction of Anselm's theory is given up. Taken as referring to the thing understood, the proposition is true, and the meaning is: Any intellect which understands that the thing is otherwise than it is, is false. The perfection of the blessed also demands that the body be restored to the soul as something to be made perfect by it. The Summa was translated into: the Indo-European language of Greek(… Thereby, Christ "merited" salvation for men. God sways the intellect; he gives the power to know and impresses the species intelligibiles on the mind, and he sways the will in that he holds the good before it as aim, creating the virtus volendi. III, tanquam parvulis in Christo, lac vobis potum dedi, non escam; propositum nostrae intentionis in hoc opere est, ea quae ad Christianam religionem pertinent, eo modo tradere, secundum quod congruit ad eruditionem incipientium. 183–189). The Logos impresses the species intelligibiles of all created things on the soul, but the intellectus agens transforms them gradually into the impressions of sense. Therefore it seems that He should have observed the ordinary manner of life as to riches and poverty, and have avoided extreme poverty. Since blessedness consists in operatio, it is made more perfect in that the soul has a definite operatio with the body, although the peculiar act of blessedness (in other words, the vision of God) has nothing to do with the body. The object of faith, however, is, by its nature, object of love; therefore, faith comes to completion only in love ("by love is the act of faith accomplished and formed"). For example, Part I, Question 2 ("The Existence of God") is divided into three articles: (1) "Whether the existence of God is self-evident? Originally written for the "instruction of beginners," time has shown that all believers can come to learn from this enriching book. ", Objection 3: "Christ specially invited men to imitate His example of humility.… But humility is most commendable in the rich.… Therefore it seems that Christ should not have chosen a life of poverty. What Is An Em Dash And How Do You Use It? Christ's suffering bore personal character in that it proceeded "out of love and obedience". 90–92), Eternal law, natural law, human law (qq. The two parts of the second part are usually presented as containing several "treatises". Everlasting blessedness consists in the vision of God – this vision consists not in an abstraction or in a mental image supernaturally produced, but the divine substance itself is beheld, and in such manner that God himself becomes immediately the form of the beholding intellect. God works even in sinners to draw them to the end by "instructing through the law and aiding by grace." God is not the cause of sin since, on the contrary, he draws all things to himself; but from another side, God is the cause of all things, so he is efficacious also in sin as actio but not as ens. "Just as instrumental power is acquired by the instrument from this, that it is moved by the principal agent, so also the sacrament obtains spiritual power from the benediction of Christ and the application of the minister to the use of the sacrament. What does ST stand for? Whatâs The Difference Between âYuleâ And âChristmasâ? St. Thomas attempts to remove the difficulty of a sensuous thing producing a creative effect, by distinguishing between the causa principalis et instrumentalis. 1-114) TREATISE ON BEATITUDE Index. 1964–80. Father Shapcote also translated various of Aquinas's other works. an edition of the first section of part 2 was printed by Peter Schöffer of Mainz in 1471. Scholasticism). 98–105), The law of the Gospel or new law (qq. The second part of the Summa follows this complex of ideas. Cosmological argument, Form of argument used in natural theology to prove the existence of God. The Summa was translated into: the Indo-European language of Greek (apparently by Maximus Planudes around 1327) and Armenian; many European languages; and Chinese. Paul in the Summa Theologiae Matthew Levering. 112 sqq.). The new law is "primarily grace itself" and so a "law given within"; "a gift superadded to nature by grace," but not a "written law." Early Church. Contrary to the Franciscan view that the sacraments are mere symbols whose efficacy God accompanies with a directly following creative act in the soul, St. Thomas holds it not unfit to agree with Hugo of St. Victor that "a sacrament contains grace", or to teach that they "cause grace". From this point of view, miracles become necessary in themselves and are to be considered merely as inexplicable to man. (1266â1273) The best-known work of Thomas Aquinas, in which he treats the whole of theology by careful analysis of arguments. ", "Thomas Aquinas's 'Summa Theologiae': A Guide and Commentary" by Brian Davies [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. xiv]. From 1917 until his death, Shapcote was based in, Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Peopleâs Choice 2020 Word Of The Year: 2020 Was A $#@#%%$@! By repeating a good action, man acquires a moral habit or a quality that enables him to do the good gladly and easily. That which Christ effects is achieved through the sacraments. After thus stating the principles of morality, in the Secunda Secundae, St. Thomas comes to a minute exposition of his ethics according to the scheme of the virtues. Why Do âLeftâ And âRightâ Mean Liberal And Conservative? The relations must be conceived as real and not as merely ideal; for, as with creatures relations arise through certain accidents, since in God there is no accident but all is substance, it follows that "the relation really existing in God is the same as the essence according to the thing". 55–60), Virtues; cardinal and theological virtues (qq. So Christ is unum since his human nature lacks the hypostasis. Accordingly, the object of both faith and love is God, involving also the entire complex of truths and commandments that God reveals, insofar as they in fact relate to God and lead to him. Therefore, we must begin with a discussion of alternative proposals for defining Human acts, however, are meritorious insofar as they promote the purpose of God and his honor. In one famous section of the Summa Theologica, Aquinas discusses five ways of attempting to prove that there is a God. Written from 1265-1274, the Summa Theologica is St. Thomas Aquinas' greatest work. This is true, however, only of the intellectual and moral virtues (which St. Thomas treats after the manner of Aristotle); the theological virtues are imparted by God to man as a "disposition", from which the acts here proceed; while they strengthen, they do not form it. On another side, the soul of Christ works miracles only as instrument of the Logos, since omnipotence in no way appertains to this human soul in itself. The course of thought here is as follows: when the first man transgressed the order of his nature appointed by nature and grace, he (and with him the human race) lost this order. The law is the "precept of the practical reason." 105–106, Leipsic, 1898). * The title of Aquinas’s work is Summa Theologiæ (Lt. for “Summary of Theology”), but it is sometimes titled Summa Theologica (e.g., NewAdvent.com and the popular Benziger Brothers 1947 translation). Since God has only the functions of thinking and willing, only two processiones can be asserted from the Father; but these establish definite relations of the persons of the Trinity, one to another. When a man knows an effect and knows that it has a cause, the natural desire of the intellect or mind is to understand the essence of that thing. Whether the act is good or evil depends on the end. The effect of predestination is grace. The "intellectual soul" consists of intellect and will. A comprehensive treatise, especially in philosophy or theology. This aspect of the Summa… The consilia show how one may attain the end "better and more expediently" by full renunciation of worldly goods. It follows that naturally known first principles cannot be …  What was lacking was added afterwards from the fourth book of his commentary on the Sentences of Peter Lombard as a supplementum, which is not found in manuscripts of the 13th and 14th centuries. The Summa makes many references to certain thinkers held in great respect in Aquinas's time. Here, St. Thomas develops his system of ethics, which has its root in Aristotle. Summa Theologica in British English. The translation is entirely the work of Laurence Shapcote (1864-1947), an English Dominican friar. The thought is involved here by the fact that St. Thomas, like other scholastics, believed in creationism; he therefore taught that souls are created by God. Of Man's Last End 2. a compendium of theology, philosophy, or canon law written by St Thomas Aquinas between 1265 and 1274. âAffectâ vs. âEffectâ: Use The Correct Word Every Time. 71–74), The general causes of sin; the internal causes of sin (qq. The Summa's three parts have a few other major subdivisions. See more. Copyright Â© 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. The powers of generation are, therefore, designated especially as "infected." With a title that is a pastiche of Thomas Aquinas’s Summa Theologiae, Lem erects a secular edifice of knowledge aimed at rivaling that of his scholastic predecessor. From another side, however, the relations as real must be really distinguished one from another. Enroll Summa Theologiae Index First Part First Part of the Second Part Second Part of the Second Part Third Part Supplement Appendices Thomistic Institute. Reprobation, however, is more than mere foreknowledge; it is the "will of permitting anyone to fall into sin and incur the penalty of condemnation for sin". Not only has the Summa Theologiae been one of the main intellectual inspirations for Thomistic philosophy, but it also had such a great influence on Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy, that Dante's epic poem has been called "the Summa in verse. ", Habits in general; their causes and effects (qq. The existence of something and its essence are distinct (e.g., a mountain of solid gold would have essence, since it can be imagined, but not existence, since it is not in the world). a philosophical and theological work (1265â74) by St. Thomas Aquinas, consisting of an exposition of Christian doctrine. its form is deviation from the divine law. It can be asserted that the incarnation was absolutely necessary. Summa Theologiae (Benziger Bros. edition, 1947) Translated by Fathers of the English Dominican Province FIRST PART OF THE SECOND PART (QQ. Justification by grace comprises four elements:. At the same time, St. Thomas distinguished the gratia sacramentalis from the gratia virtutum et donorum, in that the former perfects the general essence and the powers of the soul, whilst the latter in particular brings to pass necessary spiritual effects for the Christian life. Thomas Aquinas stands among the most important thinkers in the history of Christianity, and his famous Summa Theologica represents the pinnacle of medieval theology and perhaps the most influential theological work in the history of Western Christianity. On moral grounds, St. Thomas advocates freedom energetically; but, with his premises, he can have in mind only the psychological form of self-motivation. Determinism is deeply grounded in the system of St. Thomas; things (with their source of becoming in God) are ordered from eternity as means for the realization of his end in himself. Man stands opposite to God; he consists of soul and body. To this end, Aquinas cites proofs for the existence of God and outlines the activities and nature of God. It contains, however, an "ordering" of external and internal conduct and so regarded is, as a matter of course, identical with both the old law and the law of nature. "the influencing of free will toward God through faith;", the influencing of free will respecting sin;" and. "Thomas Aquinas, 'Summa theologiae' (ca. We Asked, You Answered. Of Those Things in Which Man's Happiness Consists 3. Finally, Aquinas devotes his attention to the nature of Christ and the role of the Sa… Thereby, all human potentialities are made perfect in Jesus. 75–78), The external causes of sin, such as the devil and man himself (qq. "; (2) "Whether it can be demonstrated that God exists? Its theme is man's striving for the highest end, which is the blessedness of the visio beata. / For while, 'twixt sorrowing parents' hands and eyes, / stood young Iulus, wildered with surprise, / up from the summit of his fair, young head / a tuft was seen of flickering flame to rise. How to say summa theologiae in English? Summa theologica definition, a philosophical and theological work (1265–74) by St. Thomas Aquinas, consisting of an exposition of Christian doctrine. , Ross, James F. 2003. Inasmuch as this truth that is to be known is practical, it first incites the will, which then brings the reason to "assent"; but since, furthermore, the good in question is transcendent and inaccessible to man by himself, it requires the infusion of a supernatural "capacity" or "disposition" to make man capable of faith as well as love. Opera Omnia, Paris: Vivès. God works all in all, but so that things also themselves exert their proper efficiency. All rights reserved. The "disposition" of evil is the opposite alternative. Summa Technologiae (1964). ST abbreviation stands for Summa Theologiae. This spiritual power remains in the sensuous thing until it has attained its purpose. It was while teaching at the Santa Sabina studium provinciale—the forerunner of the Santa Maria sopra Minerva studium generale and College of Saint Thomas, which in the 20th century would become the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum—that Aquinas began to compose the Summa. Although unfinished, it is "one of the classics of the history of philosophy and one of the most influential works of Western literature. The Summa is a more-structured and expanded version of Aquinas's earlier Summa contra Gentiles, though the two were written for different purposes. They are not only signs of sanctification, but also bring it about. A Whether the existence of God is self-evident? To be sure, God as the highest being could forgive sins without satisfaction; but because his justice and mercy could be best revealed through satisfaction, he chose this way. As the Apostle says in 1 Corinthians 3: 1–2, as to infants in Christ, I gave you milk to drink, not meat, our proposed intention in this work is to convey those things that pertain to the Christian religion, in a way that is fitting to the instruction of beginners. Since man is sinner and creature, he needs grace to reach the final end. Insofar as the old divine law contains the moral law of nature, it is universally valid; what there is in it, however, beyond this is valid only for the Jews. Part I treats of God, who is the "first cause, himself uncaused" (primum movens immobile) and as such existent only in act (actu)—i.e. Blackfriars edition (61 vols., Latin and English with notes and introductions, London: 1947. DRBO.ORG Summa-Theologiae.ORG: Summa Theologiae by St. Thomas Aquinas: FIRST PART (FP) QQ [1-119] + Treatise On Sacred Doctrine, Q  + Treatise On The One God, … The method of exposition undertaken in the articles of the Summa is derived from Averroes, to whom Aquinas refers respectfully as "the Commentator. "The Revival of Scholastic Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century." The love wrought hereby in men effects, according to Luke vii. Approximately one-half of the Summa Theologica then examines the nature and purpose of man. [a] Objection 1: It seems that the existence of God is self-evident.Now those things are said to be self-evident to us the knowledge of which is naturally implanted in us, as we can see in … 49–54), Virtues; intellectual and moral virtues (qq. In that the will wills the end, it wills also the appropriate means, chooses freely and completes the consensus. Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, Â© Random House, Inc. 2020. The first part comprises 114 questions, while the second part comprises 189. This follows from the fivefold proof for the existence of God; namely, there must be a first mover, unmoved, a first cause in the chain of causes, an absolutely necessary being, an absolutely perfect being, and a rational designer. In his doctrine of the Trinity, Aquinas starts from the Augustinian system. What is the abbreviation for Summa Theologiae? Dictionary.com Unabridged In a single statement, the effect of the sacraments is to infuse justifying grace into men. But this does not hold in the present case; because our intellect , when forming a proposition about God , does not affirm that He is composite, but that He is simple. This is true after the fall, although it was needful before. Man can never of himself deserve the prima gratis, nor meritum de congruo (by natural ability; cf. The contemplative life is greater than the active life. Vivès edition. 1852–73. 68–70), Vice and sin in themselves; the comparison of sins (qq.  The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition 1907. Later, this distinction was ignored. Can you identify the antonym of âprotagonist,â or the opposite of a hero or heroine? It is the capacity to form concepts and to abstract the mind's images (species) from the objects perceived by sense; but since what the intellect abstracts from individual things is universal, the mind knows the universal primarily and directly and knows the singular only indirectly by virtue of a certain reflexio (cf. Grace is, on one side, "the free act of God," and, on the other side, the effect of this act, the gratia infusa or gratia creata, a habitus infusus that is instilled into the "essence of the soul…a certain gift of disposition, something supernatural proceeding from God into man." What does summa mean? Since God is the first cause of everything, he is the cause of even the free acts of men through predestination. The Summa Theologiae intended to explain the Christian faith to beginning theology students, whereas the Summa contra Gentiles, to explain the Christian faith and defend it in hostile situations, with arguments adapted to the intended circumstances of its use, each article refuting a certain belief or a specific heresy.. Even today, both in Western and Eastern Catholic Churches, and the mainstream original Protestant denominations (Anglicanism and Episcopalianism, Lutheranism, Methodism, and Presbyterianism), it is very common for the Summa Theologiae to be a major reference for those seeking ordination to the diaconate or priesthood, or for professed male or female religious life, or for laypersons studying philosophy and theology at the collegiate level. Presenting the reasoning for almost all points of Christian theology in the West, topics of the Summa follow the following cycle: God; Creation, Man; Man's purpose; Christ; the Sacraments; and back to God. "):[ii], Part II of the Summa is divided into two parts (Prima Secundae and Secunda Secundae). St. Thomas's greatest work was the Summa, and it is the fullest presentation of his views. Of Those Things That Are Required for Happiness summa theologiae - thomas aquinas This page is the beginning of a project to set the whole of Aquinas' Summa Theologiae into parallel Latin-English. R. Seeberg, Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte, ii. Concerning redemption, St. Thomas teaches that Christ is to be regarded as redeemer after his human nature but in such way that the human nature produces divine effects as organ of divinity. The divine law consists of an old and a new. From the 16th century, numerous commentaries on the Summa were published, notably by Peter Crockaert (d. 1514), Francisco de Vitoria and by Thomas Cajetan (1570). Thus God became man. Furthermore, it is possible that an edict can be issued without any basis in law as defined in Question 90; in this case, men are under no compulsion to act, save as it helps the common good. Supplements the Course Video: Course Listening . Christ's humanity was the instrument for the operation of his divinity; the sacraments are the instruments through which this operation of Christ's humanity passes over to men. From it follow an impairment and perversion of human nature in which thenceforth lower aims rule, contrary to nature, and release the lower element in man. The Summa Theologiae (transl. Home > Summa Theologiae Summa Theologiae Because the doctor of Catholic truth ought not only to teach the proficient, but also to instruct beginners (according to the Apostle : As unto little ones in Christ , I gave you milk to drink, not meat — 1 Corinthians 3:1-2 ), we purpose in this book to treat of whatever belongs to the Christian religion , in such a way as may tend to the instruction of beginners. Cause of everything, he had reached Question 90 of Part III ( on the Sentences, this is a... End ( and therein the principle of action ). [ viii ] insofar as have! Moves the other powers of generation are, therefore, ends with the treatise on the of. His doctrine of the Holy Ghost ( qq grace. by Michael Wenssler of Basel in 1485 ËsÊm. The way which leads to God is self-evident Â© 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company respect in Aquinas time! Seat in these too beginning of meritorious works. and cries, / when lo É. 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